艺术家必须精通的5件事

艺术家必须精通的5件事

As an artist, your job is to immerse your viewers into a world that you have built and guide them safely through it. Artists have much in common with storytellers. Storytellers have several tricks that they use to keep their readers coming back for more. Like storytellers, artists can use similar tricks to help them produce more compelling artwork. In this article, we will explain 5 fundamental skills that every artist should master. Let's take a look!

有很多方法来帮助艺术家创造吸引人的作品,下面我们来讨论一下,每个艺术家都必须精通的5件事。


1. Composition 

1,构图

The most important aspect of art to me personally is the composition. It sets the stage for everything else. This is your way to guide and lead the viewer to make them feel as if they are actually in your picture. If this part of the process is not created and controlled properly, everything else can and probably will fall apart. That doesn't mean that you have to follow every little rule. In fact, many have broken them and created very successful works of art. It's knowing how and when to break them that will allow you to do it successfully. But before attempting anything like that, you first need to learn the rules and see how they work and function.

构图是之后一切的基础,构图不好,之后的一切努力都会变的零散和无用。这里有一些基本的构图方法,当然你不需要完全遵守它们,但在你打破它们之前,先熟悉它们。


Rule of Thirds 

三分构图

This is the simplest and most used composition technique, one that I use a lot myself. Because it is simple to learn, it's something that is recommended for beginners and those who are new to the fundamentals of composition. When used, it will divide the picture into 9 equal parts that are separated by two horizontal and vertical lines.

把画面分成9个格子,对于初学者来说是个很好的构图方法。

The main idea behind this is to place your most important element/object on one of the intersections where the lines converge (the +'s), as well as along or near the vertical line of wherever your focal may lie.

把重要的画面元素放在横竖线的焦点处

It is believed that when this is used and your subject/focal sits on one of these spots, it creates more interest in your picture rather than having it centered.

比起放在画面中心,把这些元素放在焦点处,更有吸引力。

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Dock by John Powell


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The remains which live by Keisuke Asaba


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Way of the Wizard


Iconic 

菱形构图

In contrast to what was stated above, this particular composition sets the focal point directly in the center of the picture. Although it is mostly used for character-based pieces, that does not mean it can't be used for other means, it also explains why a central focal point is desired.

For character artists, one of their goals is to place the character right in front of you and draw as much attention to it as possible. There is no better way than to put them right in the center of things. Which is why this composition is most appealing for characters (but again, don't let that sway you from experimenting).

角色为主的画面构图,经常使用。

In addition to the central focus, the diamond shaped guide shows us where we should be placing most of our attention and detail. The viewer obviously won't be seeing your work with these guides on, so you must show them what is most important in your piece through lighting, color, detail and many other things. Anything outside of this diamond is not nearly as important and should not attract as much or more attention than what is inside of it.

把重要的东西放在中心的菱形里面,菱形外面尽量放不引人注意的东西,颜色和灰度。

You can use these basic guides either as a starting point for more complex compositions or to create an entire piece. The choice is up to you, but my suggestion is to learn about them completely before taking on more complex compositions. Also, there are more composition rules and examples out there that bring up many other points than what I list here. I encourage you to search them out and read them.

还有很多构图规则,你需要自己去探索,你可以打破所有规则,但是前提是,“你真的懂了。”


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PI-2 by Marek Okon (Left). Blood Divided by Dan Santos (Center). Inject Me by Marc Simonetti (Right).


Leading the Eye 

引导观众的眼睛

Now, let's take a look at some other examples of how to direct the viewer's eye to the focal point.

In PI-2, you can see how the light immediately locks your eye into the focal point because of the strength and intensity. Other factors of this are color, placement within composition (rule of thirds) and because almost everyone in the scene is looking at the focal point it creates an implied line and causes you to as well. What keeps us locked into the focal point here however is the circular motion of the people floating in the air.

用颜色和光来表明画面重心在哪里。


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PI-2 by Piotr Jablonski


In Crysis 2 (below), the artist used light, color and placement within composition to guide the focal point. The most obvious and beautiful lights are coming from the spotlights and headlights from the vehicle, which all point towards the focal point. Secondly you have gunfire from the weapons converging on it, leading your eye directly towards it. Lastly, the artist used the rule of thirds for placement in this composition. Another point could be made for how much action is being taken place within that area. All of these have lead to a successful piece that clearly defines the focal point and the areas surrounding it.

用光照明重要画面的部分来引导观众的眼睛


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Crysis 2 - Concept 04 by Marek Okon


In the piece below, the artist uses the walkways that form around the pillar to lead the viewer into the focal point. As the dragons fly around it we follow them, which keeps us in this area longer. Because the pillar is in shadow and bright light is directly behind it, the artist has also used values and contrast to make it stand out even further.

用画面的中物体的线状结构和明暗的强对比来突出主体。


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Nest by Tuomas Korpi


In the artwork below, I used a number of elements to direct the viewer's attention to the focal point (the castle). The arch in the background and the bridge over the waterfall are both going directly into the castle. Since the image has a slight angle, all of the mountains appear to be leading to the castle, which helps point the viewer in that direction as well. One other thing helping the castle stand out is the color used on the tops, which is contrasting against the yellows, greens and reds that surround it.

用画面的中物体的线状结构来指向画面重点,用颜色的对比(互补色)来突出重点。在这里,重点就是城堡。


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Sorcerer's Hill


In the image below, I have shown how you can keep the viewer's eye from easily escaping the image via framing. You can probably see how this works just by looking at the image. But what I've done here was use the "arm" parts that are coming out from the red entity as a way to frame the image. This technique can be used to "lock" the viewer in the piece and keep them in longer. It can be overdone, but if you keep it to a reasonable level, it can come in handy. One downside to this, especially if overused, is that it can become annoying and make the viewer want to leave sooner.

用画面中的“触手”一样的东西来圈住构图,在画面中,制造一个边框出来,但是不要太过分使用这种技法,不然效果会相反。


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Eradicate


2. Perspective 

2.透视

Everything has a perspective. When standing in the street, look around and notice which side of the buildings you can see and why you see them all from different viewpoints. Then while you're at it, go ahead and look down a road, why does everything appear to get smaller as its distance is further away from you? All of these things have to deal with the perspective of those objects and your viewpoint.

近大远小,所有的物体都和你的观察点和透视有关。

Perspectives are an essential skill to learn, for architectural, environmental and many other reasons. They provide us with a way to create and build elements and objects and correctly place them within the picture plane. Perspectives rely on the horizon line (or sometimes called the eye level line) to find what is called a Vanishing Point. Vanishing points are where your perspective lines will originate (see below examples).

透视至关重要,透视的重点就是找到视平线和消失点,然后透视线都从那里开始。

One-Point Perspective 

1点透视

This is the simplest of all perspectives to learn, but one that is not widely used a whole lot because of its limitations. That being said, it can be very beneficial, depending on what scene you are creating. In this perspective, there is a single vanishing point going back to the horizon line, which the object is receding to.

应用范围比较狭窄,且只有一个消失点。

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One-Point Perspective


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2001: A Space Odyssey by Stanley Kubrick


Two-Point Perspective 

2点透视

When more than one side of your object is receding back to multiple areas, you will need to use a two-point perspective system. When used, you will create two vanishing points, each on one side of the object/element. These points will again originate from the horizon line, and the perspective lines will run from this point all the way to the object. There is where you can really start to see perspectives shift.

如果物体有2个面向远方逐渐缩小的话,就需要2点透视。

Most times your vanishing point will be way outside of your picture, but don't worry. If working traditionally, you can always use extra paper to measure the exact distance. If working digitally, extend the canvas out until you find your vanishing point.

很多时候你的消失点,会出现在画面以外,用另外的纸张来接出消失点,或者扩展你的画布,来精确的画出消失点的位置。


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Two-Point Perspective


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Mysterious Street by Lukasz Taborski


Three-Point Perspective 

3点透视

The three-point system is used when you really want to convey an extreme situation. It can be useful for scenes that are playful (doing a scene from a bird's or dog's eye view), exciting (action), and many more. To achieve this perspective, you will be using the exact same system from the two-point, but adding in a third vanishing point that is either above and below the object/element.

The third point acts exactly the same as the other two, so don't get tripped up by it, there's nothing sneaky about it. The only difference here is that the top or bottom (the verticals) of your object will adhere and recede back to this point. Which is what gives us that warped look and feel.

如果你要表现一个极端的场景,比如用飞鸟的角度从上往下看,或者一个狗或者虫子的眼睛从下往上看,或者一个极端夸张的动作场景。这时,你就需要3点透视。

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Three-Point Perspective


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In the nightmares by zardo

Let's a look at some examples that show great use of perspective:


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MILL10NAIRES by Jakob Eirich


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Cargo by Mitchell Mohrhauser


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Iroshi by Jonas De Ro


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Spirit Rising by Gary Tonge


3. Value 

3,灰度(或者说调子的深浅)

Values are the range of brightness and darkness within your image. They are white, black and everything in between. Even with color, how dark or light that color is (tints or shades) is a value. The closer something is to the foreground, the darker it will appear (depending on lighting and other things, of course), anything receding away from it will gradually get lighter as it fades into the horizon (in terms of landscapes). Take a look at the graph below and use it as a reference for when we discuss this more in depth further down.

颜色和灰度,并不是一回事,所有颜色都会对应一个灰度,可能多个颜色对应同一个灰度。这里主要说的是,用灰度的不同,来区分近,中,远景。从近到远,灰度会越来越浅,同时对比度也会越来越低,对比的概念就是最亮和最暗的灰度差。近景可能有最白和最黑的灰度,但是远景的最亮和最暗可能都在“灰”之中,没有100%的白和黑出现。

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Even more so than colors, the values of your work are one of the most vital elements of whether or not your piece will be successful. If the values do not read correctly (being able to distinguish FG from MG to BG, and/or the focal point from the surrounding area), then it won’t matter how great your composition, lighting and colors are, the piece as a whole will fail because the values don’t read properly.

灰度十分重要,简单说,把握灰度来区分画面的各个部分,使其清晰易懂最重要,不要把近,中,远景混在一起。

So, what do I mean by them being able to read properly? Well, let’s take a look. The image below is a value study by Claire Almon that was done for one of her Marie Antoinette pieces (further WIP with color is posted below this image). Take note of all of the different values within the image and how you can clearly distinguish each element apart from the other. Values help determine the overall lighting in your scene and how one object looks against another (which can help with composition and a whole list of things).

每个物体(物体群)的灰度都有不同,它们被区分的很好。灰度用来定义整个画面的照明情况和各个物体之间的区别。


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The Almon Tree

More importantly though, values separate distances within the ground plane, and it’s with this separation, when done correctly, that allows the viewer to read your work the way you intended and lead their eye to the focal point. It’s from here that you can then work on and begin finalizing your color schemes as shown below.

如果灰度被妥善使用的话,你就可以成功的引导你的观众按照你的设计来观察画面。

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The Almon Tree


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The Almon Tree


Here are a couple more examples of using values correctly. Take note of the different values used within one single image/design to help tell each element apart.

以下是一些成功的例子,注意观察灰度是如何帮助区分各个物体的。

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Feng Zhu Design Blog


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Feng Zhu Design Blog


4. Color 

4,颜色

Much like lighting, the color of your piece depends on many things; the time of day, season, location and so on. Determining the color scheme is important to do early on, even from the start if you can. Remember that things will always change and evolve, so the colors of your piece most likely will as well. As with everything, just because something looks good at one point, doesn’t necessarily mean it always will. So don’t be afraid to mix things up along the way and find something that might be better suited for what you're working on. Keep in mind that it’s very easy to go overboard with color as well, so know when not to mess with it.

颜色取决于一天中的时间段,季节和地点等。提前决定你的颜色布局很重要,但是颜色从来不是一个独立的概念,当颜色和颜色之间配合的不是很好的时候,要敢于修改原来的想法。

Knowing how to choose your color scheme depends on the time of day, the weather/sky, what season of the year it is, and whether or not you’re on an alien planet or in space. There are countless things that could help shape the colors of your painting, so it’s best to get an idea of what they are sooner than later to minimize headaches before heading into the final stages.

越早决定你的颜色布局越好,颜色取决于一天中时间段,天气,天空,季节,外星球或者宇宙空间,诸如此类的因素还有很多很多。

The color you choose should display any emotion or situation you want to convey to the viewer. If you have a fun or action piece, bright and vibrant colors might be your best bet to display that sense of action and intensity. If you're going for something a little more moody and withdrawn, you could then always opt for a darker and less saturated overall color scheme, but have your focal point be the more vibrant than the other parts. There are many variables that can lend to what type of color you use for your piece. Your job is to figure out which of them will work best.

颜色要依照画面的整体情绪来进行选择,如果画面是欢乐的,喜剧的场景,就要多用鲜艳的,饱和度高的颜色,相反,低沉的,悲剧的场景,就要用暗淡的,饱和度低的颜色,但是可以用相对鲜艳的颜色来突出画面重点。颜色可以决定很多东西,你需要多多试验,找出最符合画面的那个颜色布局。

Here are some examples of how color is used effectively to help storytelling, emotion and to guide the viewer's eye:

In the GOLEM image, the artist has built strong color around the focal point, which clearly signifies where most of your attention should be payed. The colors that surround the toy figure lend to this piece's playful nature, as well as add a layer of mystery and fantasy. The outer parts of the composition have earth tones, which are not too saturated. This helps the focal point further stand apart from the rest of the image (while maintaining balance) and allows for the playful side of the subject/theme to be fully explored.

如下图,玩具角色的周围是一些神秘的,幻想的,超自然的颜色,其周围是一般写实的,自然的颜色,用这种颜色上的对比可以用来突出画面重点。


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GOLEM - toys and magic by Randis Albion 


Here we have a contrast of color, which makes the focal point stand out. This is one of the most-used ways of using color to achieve good composition because it is both effective and dramatic in terms of composition and storytelling.

这里是一些对比色的使用,帮助突出画面重点,构图和叙事性。


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Nemeroths Fall by Roberto Robert

In this piece, I used the holographic screens on the landing pads to set it apart from all of the other elements in the scene. Since it is the most saturated part in the composition, I knew the viewer's eye would always eventually gravitate back to this area because it was the most interesting. I also wanted the feeling of an older science fiction work, so I stayed away from really vibrant colors.

用全息影像屏幕来突出起降台。


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Station.4


5. Lighting 

5,光

Like all major elements of art, lighting is crucial. Mainly because the average viewer knows what realistic lighting looks like, even if they don’t know exactly what it is that makes it look real. They can usually tell if something is working or not. Sometimes you can get lucky and fool them, but most times it can break your shot and make all the hard work that was put into your piece wasted time and work. And that's definitely not what we want.

光或者说照明的设计至关重要,因为所有人都是知道真实世界的光是如何照亮世界的,所以你很难在不精通它们的情况来创作令人信服的作品。


So, in order to know how light reacts to the environment and different materials, go outside and study it. If you are basing a piece off of something else (e.g., you’re your photographic plate in terms of matte painting or anatomy for painters), study it until you can confidently tell somebody else how it looks, feels and functions. Using photos is fine, but there’s an almost infinite source just outside those walls you are in waiting for you.

观察真实的世界去学习和研究,观察各种材质是如何反射光的,直到你完全掌握了它们的外观,特性和原理。使用照片当然可以,但是你还是需要真正的用你的眼睛去观察正真的自然。

Much like color, lighting can convey much emotion and depth. Let's take a look at how this can be achieved.

象颜色一样,光可以传达情绪和空间感。

Once again, in the image below, there is strong lighting that's being cast on the focal point. The shadows in the foreground create depth in the image and allow for the viewer to get a clear view of the focal area without the foreground going unnoticed. Because the foreground is in almost complete shadow and the midground is where we see most of our light, this allows for the viewer to have a greater impact on the focal point and what is happening in the scene. Almost immediately they see the destruction of the world around them as if they were there on the street.

照亮中景,突出大楼,让前景在阴影中,保持画面有重点。


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Skyscraper lost by Ioan Dumitrescu


Being a master of his craft, this piece by Dylan Cole makes no exception. Both the foreground and background are lit to display all of the work that went into it, while the composition is pushing you into the background towards the focal point.

同时照亮前景和远景,最终用构图来突出远景。

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Dylan Cole Studio


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Dylan Cole Studio


Conclusion 

总结

So now that we've covered all of these topics, I'm sure you're wondering how to use and incorporate them into your work. This, just like anything else, is about becoming familiar with them and practicing until you have a clear understanding of what they are and how to use them properly. Remember that we all learn differently, so if it doesn't come easy to you don't be discouraged. Just keep pressing on with small studies of each of these topics. After a while of doing them, you will notice things that you hadn't before and that is when you will start to learn and really push yourself.

我们讨论了所有的5件事,几乎覆盖了艺术的所有方面,你一定在烦恼,要如何使用这些东西。它们和其他所有知识一样,你需要去熟悉和熟练,直到你完全了解它们到底是怎么一回事,不要气馁,一点一滴的去慢慢积累吧。

Thanks for taking the time to read this article. I really hope you are able to take from this and apply it to your work and learn from it. Just remember that every great artist that you look up to started from the bottom and had to work their way through all of these skills. Continue to push yourself in the right direction with a strong goal in mind and you can become great at what you do.

非常感谢你的时间和细心的阅读,我希望你们能从中学到东西。记住,所有伟大的艺术家都是从白痴到大师的,铭记你的目标,切实的去努力,无论你做那方面的艺术创作,都一定可以成为其中最好的那一个。


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